What are Kelp Forests? – Reading Exercise

kelp forestsBelow is a reading exercise that is both informative and challenging. There are mixed mistakes included in this text; find these mistakes to test your understanding of English (while also learning about kelp!). The text, which gives a brief introduction to kelp forests, contains some advanced vocabulary, so some of the more complicated words (highlighted in the text in bold) are explained below.

Find 15 mistakes in the text below. The number of mistakes in each paragraph is indicated in brackets.

What are Kelp Forests?

Kelp forests are found among the world, though mostly in the coastal oceans of temperate and polar regions. They are underwater areas with a high density of kelp, and form incredibly diverse and productively ecosystems. (2)

Kelp is a type of seaweed. There are many different types of kelp, which vary of both structure and functionality. The most commonly knowing are the giant kelps, which can grow as fast as half a metre a day. Because of their size and the food they provide, kelp forests are used by a wide range of sea life for protection. Within kelp forest, you may find fish, invertebrates and even marine mammals living amongst them. (3)

Designated an algae, the kelp organism was known as a “thallus”, not a plant. It has 3 basic structural units – a root-like mass anchored it to the floor, a “stipe” which is like a plant stalk, and “fronds”, which are like a leaf that extends from the stipe collect nutrients. Many kelp species also have gas-filled bladders that help keep the structure upright. Some kelp species are annual, lasting one season, while others can be perennial, living for over 20 years. (3)

Human Interaction with Kelp Forests

Human existence has benefits from kelp forests for thousands of years. Some believe human migration in the Americas was guided by fishing communities following the Pacific Kelp Forests. These forests will have provided sustenance and protected boats from rough water, as well as offered a nature path to follow. Modern economies, meanwhile, are reliant on many species that are associated with kelp, such as rockfish and lobster. Humans also directly harvest kelp about chemical components, and kelp forests can provide exciting areas for SCUBA divers to explore. (4)

Kelp forests form such a key part of the global ecosystem that they have been the subject of much research over the last century. Sadly, human involving has led to degradation of kelp forests, particularly caused by overfishing, which causes population movements that make more creatures eat the kelp. Pollution and over-harvesting also present insignificant dangers to kelp forests. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been implemented to try and protect ocean ecosystems, by limiting fishing and to buffer areas from other stressful influences. (3)

Vocabulary

density – how thick or widely populated something is; ecosystem – an area containing the necessary elements to support life; invertebrates – creatures without a backbone; designated – officially named or titled; perennial – something that lives for more than 2 years; sustenance – a means of subsistence/life; degradation – the process of spoiling beauty or quality

Answers

The mistakes in the text are shown in bold, with the correction shown in brackets. As always, if you have any questions please comment below, and feel free to share this page so others can try the exercise!

What are Kelp Forests?

Kelp forests are found 1. among (incorrect preposition – across or throughout would work) the world, though mostly in the coastal oceans of temperate and polar regions. They are underwater areas with a high density of kelp, and form incredibly diverse and 2. productively (productive)  ecosystems. (2)

Kelp is a type of seaweed. There are many different types of kelp, which vary 3. of (in) both structure and functionality. The most commonly 4. knowing (known) are the giant kelps, which can grow as fast as half a metre a day. Because of their size and the food they provide, kelp forests are used by a wide range of sea life for protection. Within 5. kelp forest (a kelp forest, or kelp forests), you may find fish, invertebrates and even marine mammals living amongst them. (3)

Designated an algae, the kelp organism 6. was (is) known as a “thallus”, not a plant. It has 3 basic structural units – a root-like mass 7. anchored (anchoring) it to the floor, a “stipe” which is like a plant stalk, and “fronds”, which are like a leaf that extends from the stipe 8. collect (to collect) nutrients. Many kelp species also have gas-filled bladders that help keep the structure upright. Some kelp species are annual, lasting one season, while others can be perennial, living for over 20 years. (3)

Human Interaction with Kelp Forests

Human existence has 9. benefits (benefitted) from kelp forests for thousands of years. Some believe human migration in the Americas was guided by fishing communities following the Pacific Kelp Forests. These forests 10. will (would) have provided sustenance and protected boats from rough water, as well as offered a 11. nature (natural) path to follow. Modern economies, meanwhile, are reliant on many species that are associated with kelp, such as rockfish and lobster. Humans also directly harvest kelp 12. about (for) chemical components, and kelp forests can provide exciting areas for SCUBA divers to explore. (3)

Kelp forests form such a key part of the global ecosystem that they have been the subject of much research over the last century. Sadly, human 13. involving (involvement) has led to degradation of kelp forests, particularly caused by overfishing, which causes population movements that make more creatures eat the kelp. Pollution and over-harvesting also present 14. insignificant (significant) dangers to kelp forests. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been implemented to try and protect ocean ecosystems, by limiting fishing and to 15. buffer (buffering) areas from other stressful influences. (3)

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